Colloquium

At the beginning of March, I’ll be going to Cambridge to take part in a Digital Learning Colloquium (for more information about the event, see here ). One of the questions that will be explored is how research might contribute to the development of digital language learning. In this, the first of two posts on the subject, I’ll be taking a broad overview of the current state of play in edtech research.

I try my best to keep up to date with research. Of the main journals, there are Language Learning and Technology, which is open access; CALICO, which offers quite a lot of open access material; and reCALL, which is the most restricted in terms of access of the three. But there is something deeply frustrating about most of this research, and this is what I want to explore in these posts. More often than not, research articles end with a call for more research. And more often than not, I find myself saying ‘Please, no, not more research like this!’

First, though, I would like to turn to a more reader-friendly source of research findings. Systematic reviews are, basically literature reviews which can save people like me from having to plough through endless papers on similar subjects, all of which contain the same (or similar) literature review in the opening sections. If only there were more of them. Others agree with me: the conclusion of one systematic review of learning and teaching with technology in higher education (Lillejord et al., 2018) was that more systematic reviews were needed.

Last year saw the publication of a systematic review of research on artificial intelligence applications in higher education (Zawacki-Richter, et al., 2019) which caught my eye. The first thing that struck me about this review was that ‘out of 2656 initially identified publications for the period between 2007 and 2018, 146 articles were included for final synthesis’. In other words, only just over 5% of the research was considered worthy of inclusion.

The review did not paint a very pretty picture of the current state of AIEd research. As the second part of the title of this review (‘Where are the educators?’) makes clear, the research, taken as a whole, showed a ‘weak connection to theoretical pedagogical perspectives’. This is not entirely surprising. As Bates (2019) has noted: ‘since AI tends to be developed by computer scientists, they tend to use models of learning based on how computers or computer networks work (since of course it will be a computer that has to operate the AI). As a result, such AI applications tend to adopt a very behaviourist model of learning: present / test / feedback.’ More generally, it is clear that technology adoption (and research) is being driven by technology enthusiasts, with insufficient expertise in education. The danger is that edtech developers ‘will simply ‘discover’ new ways to teach poorly and perpetuate erroneous ideas about teaching and learning’ (Lynch, 2017).

This, then, is the first of my checklist of things that, collectively, researchers need to do to improve the value of their work. The rest of this list is drawn from observations mostly, but not exclusively, from the authors of systematic reviews, and mostly come from reviews of general edtech research. In the next blog post, I’ll look more closely at a recent collection of ELT edtech research (Mavridi & Saumell, 2020) to see how it measures up.

1 Make sure your research is adequately informed by educational research outside the field of edtech

Unproblematised behaviourist assumptions about the nature of learning are all too frequent. References to learning styles are still fairly common. The most frequently investigated skill that is considered in the context of edtech is critical thinking (Sosa Neira, et al., 2017), but this is rarely defined and almost never problematized, despite a broad literature that questions the construct.

2 Adopt a sceptical attitude from the outset

Know your history. Decades of technological innovation in education have shown precious little in the way of educational gains and, more than anything else, have taught us that we need to be sceptical from the outset. ‘Enthusiasm and praise that are directed towards ‘virtual education, ‘school 2.0’, ‘e-learning and the like’ (Selwyn, 2014: vii) are indications that the lessons of the past have not been sufficiently absorbed (Levy, 2016: 102). The phrase ‘exciting potential’, for example, should be banned from all edtech research. See, for example, a ‘state-of-the-art analysis of chatbots in education’ (Winkler & Söllner, 2018), which has nothing to conclude but ‘exciting potential’. Potential is fine (indeed, it is perhaps the only thing that research can unambiguously demonstrate – see section 3 below), but can we try to be a little more grown-up about things?

3 Know what you are measuring

Measuring learning outcomes is tricky, to say the least, but it’s understandable that researchers should try to focus on them. Unfortunately, ‘the vast array of literature involving learning technology evaluation makes it challenging to acquire an accurate sense of the different aspects of learning that are evaluated, and the possible approaches that can be used to evaluate them’ (Lai & Bower, 2019). Metrics such as student grades are hard to interpret, not least because of the large number of variables and the danger of many things being conflated in one score. Equally, or possibly even more, problematic, are self-reporting measures which are rarely robust. It seems that surveys are the most widely used instrument in qualitative research (Sosa Neira, et al., 2017), but these will tell us little or nothing when used for short-term interventions (see point 5 below).

4 Ensure that the sample size is big enough to mean something

In most of the research into digital technology in education that was analysed in a literature review carried out for the Scottish government (ICF Consulting Services Ltd, 2015), there were only ‘small numbers of learners or teachers or schools’.

5 Privilege longitudinal studies over short-term projects

The Scottish government literature review (ICF Consulting Services Ltd, 2015), also noted that ‘most studies that attempt to measure any outcomes focus on short and medium term outcomes’. The fact that the use of a particular technology has some sort of impact over the short or medium term tells us very little of value. Unless there is very good reason to suspect the contrary, we should assume that it is a novelty effect that has been captured (Levy, 2016: 102).

6 Don’t forget the content

The starting point of much edtech research is the technology, but most edtech, whether it’s a flashcard app or a full-blown Moodle course, has content. Research reports rarely give details of this content, assuming perhaps that it’s just fine, and all that’s needed is a little tech to ‘present learners with the ‘right’ content at the ‘right’ time’ (Lynch, 2017). It’s a foolish assumption. Take a random educational app from the Play Store, a random MOOC or whatever, and the chances are you’ll find it’s crap.

7 Avoid anecdotal accounts of technology use in quasi-experiments as the basis of a ‘research article’

Control (i.e technology-free) groups may not always be possible but without them, we’re unlikely to learn much from a single study. What would, however, be extremely useful would be a large, collated collection of such action-research projects, using the same or similar technology, in a variety of settings. There is a marked absence of this kind of work.

8 Enough already of higher education contexts

Researchers typically work in universities where they have captive students who they can carry out research on. But we have a problem here. The systematic review of Lundin et al (2018), for example, found that ‘studies on flipped classrooms are dominated by studies in the higher education sector’ (besides lacking anchors in learning theory or instructional design). With some urgency, primary and secondary contexts need to be investigated in more detail, not just regarding flipped learning.

9 Be critical

Very little edtech research considers the downsides of edtech adoption. Online safety, privacy and data security are hardly peripheral issues, especially with younger learners. Ignoring them won’t make them go away.

More research?

So do we need more research? For me, two things stand out. We might benefit more from, firstly, a different kind of research, and, secondly, more syntheses of the work that has already been done. Although I will probably continue to dip into the pot-pourri of articles published in the main CALL journals, I’m looking forward to a change at the CALICO journal. From September of this year, one issue a year will be thematic, with a lead article written by established researchers which will ‘first discuss in broad terms what has been accomplished in the relevant subfield of CALL. It should then outline which questions have been answered to our satisfaction and what evidence there is to support these conclusions. Finally, this article should pose a “soft” research agenda that can guide researchers interested in pursuing empirical work in this area’. This will be followed by two or three empirical pieces that ‘specifically reflect the research agenda, methodologies, and other suggestions laid out in the lead article’.

But I think I’ll still have a soft spot for some of the other journals that are coyer about their impact factor and that can be freely accessed. How else would I discover (it would be too mean to give the references here) that ‘the effective use of new technologies improves learners’ language learning skills’? Presumably, the ineffective use of new technologies has the opposite effect? Or that ‘the application of modern technology represents a significant advance in contemporary English language teaching methods’?

References

Bates, A. W. (2019). Teaching in a Digital Age Second Edition. Vancouver, B.C.: Tony Bates Associates Ltd. Retrieved from https://pressbooks.bccampus.ca/teachinginadigitalagev2/

ICF Consulting Services Ltd (2015). Literature Review on the Impact of Digital Technology on Learning and Teaching. Edinburgh: The Scottish Government. https://dera.ioe.ac.uk/24843/1/00489224.pdf

Lai, J.W.M. & Bower, M. (2019). How is the use of technology in education evaluated? A systematic review. Computers & Education, 133(1), 27-42. Elsevier Ltd. Retrieved January 14, 2020 from https://www.learntechlib.org/p/207137/

Levy, M. 2016. Researching in language learning and technology. In Farr, F. & Murray, L. (Eds.) The Routledge Handbook of Language Learning and Technology. Abingdon, Oxon.: Routledge. pp.101 – 114

Lillejord S., Børte K., Nesje K. & Ruud E. (2018). Learning and teaching with technology in higher education – a systematic review. Oslo: Knowledge Centre for Education https://www.forskningsradet.no/siteassets/publikasjoner/1254035532334.pdf

Lundin, M., Bergviken Rensfeldt, A., Hillman, T. et al. (2018). Higher education dominance and siloed knowledge: a systematic review of flipped classroom research. International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education 15, 20 (2018) doi:10.1186/s41239-018-0101-6

Lynch, J. (2017). How AI Will Destroy Education. Medium, November 13, 2017. https://buzzrobot.com/how-ai-will-destroy-education-20053b7b88a6

Mavridi, S. & Saumell, V. (Eds.) (2020). Digital Innovations and Research in Language Learning. Faversham, Kent: IATEFL

Selwyn, N. (2014). Distrusting Educational Technology. New York: Routledge

Sosa Neira, E. A., Salinas, J. and de Benito Crosetti, B. (2017). Emerging Technologies (ETs) in Education: A Systematic Review of the Literature Published between 2006 and 2016. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Education, 12 (5). https://online-journals.org/index.php/i-jet/article/view/6939

Winkler, R. & Söllner, M. (2018): Unleashing the Potential of Chatbots in Education: A State-Of-The-Art Analysis. In: Academy of Management Annual Meeting (AOM). Chicago, USA. https://www.alexandria.unisg.ch/254848/1/JML_699.pdf

Zawacki-Richter, O., Bond, M., Marin, V. I. And Gouverneur, F. (2019). Systematic review of research on artificial intelligence applications in higher education – where are the educators? International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education 2019

Comments
  1. ddeubel says:

    I would add “Look out for buzz words”. Ex. Spaced repetition. Brain based. Adaptive learning. Further – find out who commissioned said research. Too often (I’ve done this and hired them), ed tech pays for the research and studies. Not proper protocol.

  2. Hiya Philip… FYI I’ve used this article as a point of departure for a post called Educational; Research in Learning Technology, which you might find interesting. https://halfanhour.blogspot.com/2020/02/research-in-learning-technology.html

  3. […] a photo of your board – Say what you want about EdTech (some people do), tech in general is just lush. A camera, dictionary, voice recorder, and speaker in my pocket? Yes […]

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