‘Adaptive learning’ can mean slightly different things to different people. According to one provider of adaptive learning software (Smart Sparrow https://www.smartsparrow.com/adaptive-elearning), it is ‘an online learning and teaching medium that uses an Intelligent Tutoring System to adapt online learning to the student’s level of knowledge. Adaptive eLearning provides students with customised educational content and the unique feedback that they need, when they need it.’ Essentially, it is software that analyzes the work that a student is doing online, and tailors further learning tasks to the individual learner’s needs (as analyzed by the software).
A relatively simple example of adaptive language learning is Duolingo, a free online service that currently offers seven languages, including English (www.duolingo.com/ ), with over 10 million users in November 2013. Learners progress through a series of translation, dictation and multiple choice exercises that are organised into a ‘skill tree’ of vocabulary and grammar areas. Because translation plays such a central role, the program is only suitable for speakers of one of the languages on offer in combination with one of the other languages on offer. Duolingo’s own blog describes the approach in the following terms: ‘Every time you finish a Duolingo lesson, translation, test, or practice session, you provide valuable data about what you know and what you’re struggling with. Our system uses this info to plan future lessons and select translation tasks specifically for your skills and needs. Similar to how an online store uses your previous purchases to customize your shopping experience, Duolingo uses your learning history to customize your learning experience’ (http://blog.duolingo.com/post/41960192602/duolingos-data-driven-approach-to-education).
Example of a ‘skill tree’ from http://www.duolingo.com
For anyone with a background in communicative language teaching, the experience can be slightly surreal. Examples of sentences that need to be translated include: The dog eats the bird, the boy has a cow, and the fly is eating bread. The system allows you to compete and communicate with other learners, and to win points and rewards (see ‘Gamification’ next post).
Duolingo describes its crowd-sourced, free, adaptive approach as ‘pretty unique’, but uniquely unique it is not. It is essentially a kind of memory trainer, and there are a number available on the market. One of the most well-known is Cerego’s cloud-based iKnow!, which describes itself as a ‘memory management platform’. Particularly strong in Japan, corporate and individual customers pay a monthly subscription to access its English, Chinese and Japanese language programs. A free trial of some of the products is available at http://iknow.jp/ and I experimented with their ‘Erudite English’ program. This presented a series of words which included ‘defalcate’, ‘fleer’ and ‘kvetch’ through English-only definitions, followed by multiple choice and dictated gap-fill exercises. As with Duolingo, there seemed to be no obvious principle behind the choice of items, and example sentences included things like ‘Michael arrogates a slice of carrot cake, unbeknownst to his sister,’ or ‘She found a place in which to posit the flowerpot.’ Based on a user’s performance, Cerego’s algorithms decide which items will be presented, and select the frequency and timing of opportunities for review. The program can be accessed through ordinary computers, as well as iPhone and Android apps. The platform has been designed in such a way as to allow other content to be imported, and then presented and practised in a similar way.
In a similar vein, the Rosetta Stone software also uses spaced repetition to teach grammar and vocabulary. It describes its adaptive learning as ‘Adaptive Recall™’ According to their website, this provides review activities for each lesson ‘at intervals that are determined by your performance in that review. Exceed the program’s expectations for you and the review gets pushed out further. Fall short and you’ll see it sooner. The program gives you a likely date and automatically notifies you when it’s time to take the review again’. Rosetta Stone has won numerous awards and claims that over 20,000 educational institutions around the world have formed partnerships with them. These include the US military, the University of Barcelona and Harrogate Grammar school in the UK (http://www.rosettastone.co.uk/faq ).
Slightly more sophisticated than the memory-trainers described above is the GRE (the Graduate Record Examinations, a test for admission into many graduate schools in the US) online preparation program that is produced by Barron’s (www.barronstestprep.com//gre ). Although this is not an English language course, it provides a useful example of how simple adaptive learning programs can be taken a few steps further. At the time of writing, it is possible to do a free trial, and this gives a good taste of adaptive learning. Barron’s highlights the way that their software delivers individualized study programs: it is not, they say, a case of ‘one size fits all’. After entering the intended test date, the intended number of hours of study, and a simple self-evaluation of different reasoning skills, a diagnostic test completes the information required to set up a personalized ‘prep plan’. This determines the lessons you will be given. As you progress through the course, the ‘prep plan’ adapts to the work that you do, comparing your performance to other students who have taken the course. Measuring your progress and modifying your ‘skill profile’, the order of the lessons and the selection of the 1000+ practice questions can change.